The EU or member states themselves are responsible for readmission agreements
There are two kinds of readmission agreements: EU readmission agreements and bilateral readmission agreements. There are also other agreements and memorandums of understanding concerning readmission.
EU readmission agreements
Under the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union, the European Union may conclude agreements with third countries for the readmission of third-country nationals residing in the EU area to their home countries or countries of origin. Since these EU readmission agreements cover all Member States, there is no need for separate bilateral agreements.
Member States may draw up a more detailed bilateral implementing protocol under EU readmission agreements. Finland has concluded such a protocol with Russia only, in 2013.
The EU has so far concluded readmission agreements with the following states and autonomous regions: Hong Kong (2004), Macao (2004), Sri Lanka (2005), Albania (2006), Russia (2007), Ukraine (2008), Macedonia (2008), Bosnia and Herzegovina (2008), Montenegro (2008), Serbia (2008), Moldova (2008), Pakistan (2010), Georgia (2011), Armenia (2014), Azerbaijan (2014), Turkey (2014) and Cape Verde (2014).
Furthermore, the Council of the European Union has authorised the EU to negotiate readmission agreements with the following states: Morocco (2000), China (2002), Algeria (2002), Belarus (2011), Tunisia (2014) and Jordan (2015). Negotiations have not yet led to a readmission agreement with any these countries.
In addition, the Commission launched readmission agreement negotiations with Nigeria in October 2016. Following this, the aim is to begin negotiations with other new countries and to extend the scope of EU readmission agreements.
Bilateral readmission agreements
Besides EU agreements, Finland has bilateral readmission agreements with Estonia (1996), Latvia (1997), Lithuania (1997), Bulgaria (1998), Romania (2001), Switzerland (2010) and Kosovo (2013). Bilateral agreements may be concluded with countries with which the EU has no readmission agreements. An example of this is the readmission agreement with Kosovo.
Other agreements and memorandums of understanding on readmission
The Nordic Passport Convention (1958) includes a readmission obligation. The Nordic countries may, under certain circumstances, mutually return third country nationals who are staying illegally on their territory.
According to the Government action plan on asylum policy (8 December 2015), the objective is to complete negotiations with Iraq, Afghanistan and Somalia on bilateral readmission agreements as quickly as possible. Finland and Afghanistan signed a comprehensive Joint Declaration on cooperation in the field of migration on 4 October 2016. Negotiations on memorandums of understanding concerning readmission with the other two countries are at different stages.
In addition, the Finnish Immigration Service has drawn up a memorandum of understanding on voluntary return with Somaliland (not Somalia) in 2012.