There are two kinds of readmission agreements: EU readmission agreements and bilateral readmission agreements.
There are also other agreements and memorandums of understanding concerning readmission.
EU readmission agreements
Under the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union, the European Union may conclude agreements with third countries for the readmission of third-country nationals residing in the EU area to their home countries or countries of origin. Since these EU readmission agreements cover all Member States, there is no need for separate bilateral agreements.
Member States may draw up a more detailed bilateral implementing protocol under EU readmission agreements. Finland has concluded such a protocol with Russia only, in 2013.
The EU has so far concluded readmission agreements with the following states and autonomous regions:
- Albania (2006)
- Armenia (2014)
- Azerbaijan (2014)
- Belarus (2020)
- Bosnia and Herzegovina (2008)
- Cape Verde (Cabo Verde) (2014)
- Georgia (2011)
- Hong Kong (2004)
- Macao (2004)
- Moldova (2008)
- Montenegro (2008)
- North Macedonia (2008)
- Pakistan (2010)
- Russia (2007)
- Serbia (2008)
- Sri Lanka (2005)
- Turkey (2014)
- Ukraine (2008)
Furthermore, the Council of the European Union has authorised the Commission to negotiate readmission agreements with the following states:
- Algeria (2002)
- China (2002)
- Jordan (2015)
- Morocco (2000)
- Nigeria (2016)
- Tunisia (2014)
Negotiations have not yet led to a readmission agreement with any of these countries.
Bilateral readmission agreements
Besides EU agreements, Finland has bilateral readmission agreements with the following states:
- Bulgaria (1998)
- Estonia (1996)
- Kosovo (2013)
- Latvia (1997)
- Lithuania (1997)
- Romania (2001)
- Switzerland (2010)
Bilateral agreements may be concluded with countries with which the Commission is not negotiating an EU level readmission agreement.
Other agreements and memorandums of understanding on readmission
Finland and Afghanistan signed a joint declaration on voluntary return in October 2016. Finland is also negotiating with Iraq and Somalia on memorandums of understanding concerning readmission.
In addition, the Finnish Immigration Service has drawn up a memorandum of understanding on voluntary return with Somaliland (not Somalia) in 2012.