The fight against terrorism is spearheaded by cooperation between authorities
There is no internationally agreed definition of terrorism. Terrorism generally involves the use or threat of violence in order to achieve certain goals and cause unrest or fear. As a phenomenon, terrorism is defined as action which involves the violation of national or international law, or violence or the threat of violence, with the aim of causing unrest and fear.
In Finland, the main responsibility for counter-terrorism lies with the police. The focus of counter-terrorism is on preventive measures, the success of which depends on broad-based cooperation between different stakeholders. Besides cooperation between authorities, third sector involvement is also needed.
Terrorist threat assessment
The Finnish Security and Intelligence Service issued a new terrorist threat assessment in March 2021. The threat of terrorism in Finland is at the second level, or ‘elevated’, on the four-tier scale. The levels used by the Finnish Security and Intelligence Service are low, elevated, high and severe.
The threat level is unchanged compared to last year but the threat picture related to the far right is more worrying than before.
The greatest threat of a terrorist attack is posed by lone operators or small groups advocating far-right or radical Islamist ideology. Significant terrorist support activities can nevertheless be found in Finland, and some 390 individuals are categorised as counter-terrorism target individuals.
Intelligence in a key role
The aim of counter-terrorism is to identify and counter threats to Finland before they are realised. The Government has laid down guidelines and called for the further development of counter-terrorism. In addition, the European Union Counter-Terrorism Strategy and the related Action Plan set out ways of strengthening international cooperation and list the measures required to combat terrorism.
In counter-terrorism activities, intelligence work and cooperation play significant roles at both national and international level. In Finland, the main responsibility for the monitoring and analysis of terrorism-related phenomena lies with the Finnish Security Intelligence Service.
The Ministry of the Interior has prepared civilian intelligence legislation, which entered into force on 1 June 2019. The Act grants to the Finnish Security Intelligence Service additional powers for combating terrorism, for instance.
The National Bureau of Investigation is responsible for the criminal investigation of terrorism offences
The Police Act, the Criminal Investigation Act and the Coercive Measures Act all govern the detection and investigation of terrorist offences. In Finland, responsibility for the criminal investigation of terrorist offences rests with the National Bureau of Investigation. Other authorities may also participate in criminal investigations, providing assistance to the police unit conducting the investigation in question.
- National Counter-Terrorism Strategy 2018–2021
- EU Counter-terrorism strategy and EU Action Plan on combating terrorism
- EU Terrorism Situation & Trend Report 2021
- UN CTC’s recommendations on CT and CVE November 1 2019
- Threats to international peace and security caused by terrorist acts – UN Security Council Resolution September 24 2014
- Year book 2020 | Finnish Security Intelligence Service
- Terrorist threat assessment | Finnish Security Intelligence Service
- Counterterrorism | Finnish Security Intelligence Service